There are two types of vaccines currently available
to veterinarians: modified-live vaccines and inactivated ("killed") vaccines.
There is a great deal of controversy and confusion
surrounding the appropriate immunization schedule, especially with the availability of modified-live vaccines and breeders
who have experienced postvaccinal problems when using some of these vaccines. It is also important to not begin a vaccination
program while maternal antibodies are still active and present in the puppy from the mother's colostrum. The maternal antibodies
identify the vaccines as infectious organisms and destroy them before they can stimulate an immune response.
Many breeders and owners have sought a safer immunization
Modified Live Vaccines (MLV)
Modified-live vaccines contain a weakened strain
of the disease causing agent. Weakening of the agent is typically accomplished by chemical means or by genetic engineering.
These vaccines replicate within the host, thus increasing the amount of material available for provoking an immune response
without inducing clinical illness. This provocation primes the immune system to mount a vigorous response if the disease causing
agent is ever introduced to the animal. Further, the immunity provided by a modified-live vaccine develops rather swiftly
and since they mimic infection with the actual disease agent, it provides the best immune response.
Inactivated Vaccines (Killed)
Inactivated vaccines contain killed disease causing
agents. Since the agent is killed, it is much more stable and has a longer shelf life, there is no possibility that they will
revert to a virulent form, and they never spread from the vaccinated host to other animals. They are also safe for use in
pregnant animals (a developing fetus may be susceptible to damage by some of the disease agents, even though attenuated, present
in modified-live vaccines). Although more than a single dose of vaccine is always required and the duration of immunity
is generally shorter, inactivated vaccines are regaining importance in this age of retrovirus and herpesvirus infections and
concern about the safety of genetically modified microorganisms. Inactivated vaccines available for use in dogs include rabies,
canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, etc.
W. Jean Dodds, DVM
938 Stanford Street
Santa Monica, CA 90403
Note: This schedule is the one I recommend and should not be interpreted to mean that other
protocols recommended by a veterinarian would be less satisfactory. It's a matter of professional judgment and choice. For
breeds or families of dogs susceptible to or affected with immune dysfunction, immune-mediated disease, immune-reactions associated
with vaccinations, or autoimmune endocrine disease (e.g., thyroiditis, Addison's or Cushing's disease, diabetes, etc.) the
above protocol is recommended.
After 1 year, annually measure serum antibody titers against specific canine infectious agents such
as distemper and parvovirus. This is especially recommended for animals previously experiencing adverse vaccine reactions
or breeds at higher risk for such reactions (e.g., Weimaraner, Akita, American Eskimo, Great Dane).
Another alternative to booster vaccinations is homeopathic nosodes. This option is considered an unconventional
treatment that has not been scientifically proven to be efficacious. One controlled parvovirus nosode study did not adequately
protect puppies under challenged conditions. However, data from Europe and clinical experience in North America support its
use. If veterinarians choose to use homeopathic nosodes, their clients should be provided with an appropriate disclaimer and
written informed consent should be obtained.
I use only killed 3 year rabies vaccine for adults and give it separated from other vaccines by 3-4
weeks. In some states, they may be able to give titer test result in lieu of booster.
I do NOT use Bordetella, corona virus, leptospirosis or Lyme vaccines unless these diseases are endemic
in the local area pr specific kennel. Furthermore, the currently licensed leptospira bacterins do not contain the serovars
causing the majority of clinical leptospirosis today.
I do NOT recommend vaccinating bitches during estrus, pregnancy or lactation.
W. Jean Dodds, DVM